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Main web programming languages

by SW Team

When we start a new project in the world of web programming, we are always faced with the same dilemma: Which is the best programming language?.

From the early days of the Internet, when web pages were simple text documents, to today's complex, interactive web applications, technology has advanced by leaps and bounds. With each advance, new languages and tools have emerged, offering developers more options than ever before.

In this guide, we will explore the main and most widely used languages in the web programming arena, highlighting their features and advantages. Whether you're looking to build a static website, a dynamic application, or a robust and scalable platform. Understanding the strengths of each language will help you make an informed decision.



HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is the standard language used to create and structure the content of web pages. Web browsers interpret HTML code and present it to the user visually. Although HTML is not considered a programming language in the traditional sense, since it does not include variables, conditional statements or loops, it is fundamental to web development. Its main purpose is to structure the content and define the semantics of the different elements, such as paragraphs, headings, links, images and tables.

To enrich and improve the presentation of HTML documents, CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is used. CSS is a styling language that allows layout and formatting to be applied to HTML elements. With CSS, developers can control visual aspects such as colors, fonts, margins, alignments and much more, making web pages visually appealing and easy to use.

HTML: Structuring content

HTML uses a series of elements and tags to organize web content. Each tag has a specific purpose, for example:

  • <h1> to <h6>: Headings of different levels.
  • <p>: Paragraphs.
  • <a>: Links.
  • <img>: Images.
  • <table>: Tables.

These tags create a clear and logical structure for the content, making it easier for users to read and for search engines to interpret.

CSS: Styling the Web

CSS works in conjunction with HTML to improve the appearance of Web pages. Using CSS, developers can separate presentation from content, making it easier to maintain and update the design without altering the HTML structure. CSS allows you to:

  • Specify background and text colors.
  • Define fonts and font sizes.
  • Adjust margins and padding.
  • Establish the page layout using box, flexbox or grid layout models.

The combination of HTML for structure and CSS for style is essential for modern web development, allowing the creation of websites that are both functional and visually appealing.


JavaScript is a powerful and versatile programming language used to add interactivity and functionality to websites. It is widely used in web development and offers numerous possibilities for creating interactive experiences for users.

Popular frameworks:

The JavaScript ecosystem has several popular frameworks that facilitate the development of interactive and dynamic web applications. Some of the most prominent frameworks are:

  • jQuery: A fast, small and feature-rich library that simplifies DOM manipulation, event handling and animations in JavaScript.

  • React.js: Developed by Facebook, React.js is a JavaScript library for building interactive and reusable user interfaces. It uses a component-based approach to create dynamic and efficient user interfaces.

  • AngularJS/Angular: AngularJS, developed by Google, is a JavaScript framework for building single-page web applications (SPAs) and scalable web applications. Angular (also known as Angular 2+) is the latest version and offers a more modular and improved approach to web application development.

Advantages of JavaScript in web development:

  • Dynamic interactivity: JavaScript allows interactive features to be added to Web sites, such as events that occur when buttons are pressed, data is entered into forms, or scrolling down the page.

  • Robustness and versatility: JavaScript is a robust language that can be applied to an HTML document, making it an essential tool for creating dynamic interactivity and real-time content on Web sites.

  • Ease of update and distribution: Changes or updates to JavaScript code can be easily implemented, as users only need to load the new version of the code in their browsers, without the need to manually install or update a program or application.

JavaScript is a fundamental programming language in web development, offering robustness, versatility and a wide variety of resources to create interactive and dynamic experiences on websites.


Python is a very versatile and powerful programming language that can be used in a wide variety of applications, including web development. It was created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991, designed to be easy to read and write, making it ideal for beginners and experienced developers alike.

Python is known for its clear and readable syntax, making it easy to write and maintain code. This, along with its extensive standard library and active developer community, makes it an excellent choice for web development.

Popular frameworks:

  • Django: A high-level framework that promotes rapid development and clean, pragmatic design. Django includes a number of built-in features, such as an authentication system, an ORM (Object-Relational Mapping), and an out-of-the-box administration system, allowing developers to focus on the business logic of their applications without having to reinvent the wheel.

  • Flask: A lightweight microframework that provides the essentials to get started with web development. Flask is flexible and modular, allowing developers to choose the extensions and libraries that best suit their needs. It is ideal for small to medium-sized projects where more detailed control over components is required.

  • Pyramid: A framework that adapts to projects of any size. Pyramid is minimalistic and extensible, allowing developers to start with a minimal configuration and add components as the project grows.

Advantages of Python in web development:

Python is widely used in web development for a number of reasons:

  • Clear and readable syntax: Makes it easy to develop and collaborate on projects.
  • Broad community and resources: A wealth of documentation, tutorials and community support.
  • Integration with other technologies: Python integrates well with other languages and platforms.
  • Scalability: Frameworks such as Django allow you to build applications that can grow and handle large volumes of traffic.

Python, with its powerful frameworks and focus on simplicity and productivity, is a popular choice for web development. It provides a solid foundation for creating fast and efficient web applications, adapting to the needs of projects of all sizes.


PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) is a general-purpose programming language, especially geared towards web development. Created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994, PHP is primarily used to create server-side scripts, which allow you to generate dynamic content on web pages and perform tasks such as collecting data from forms, managing sessions and cookies, and interacting with databases.

One of the distinguishing features of PHP is its ability to embed code directly into HTML documents using the <?php y ?> tags. This allows an HTML file to contain embedded PHP elements, facilitating the creation of dynamic web pages easily and efficiently.


Popular frameworks:

PHP has several frameworks that make web development easier and faster, providing predefined frameworks and tools to create robust and scalable applications. Some of the most popular frameworks are:

  • Laravel: Known for its elegance and simplicity, Laravel provides a set of tools and resources that facilitate common tasks such as authentication, database management and routing.

  • Symfony: A flexible and modular framework. Symfony is ideal for projects of any size. It offers a large number of reusable components and integrates well with other frameworks and libraries.

  • CodeIgniter: A lightweight, high-performance framework. CodeIgniter is known for its ease of installation and configuration, making it an excellent choice for small and medium-sized projects.

Advantages of PHP in web development:

  • Server-side execution: PHP code is executed on the server and the result is sent to the client browser as pure HTML. This not only improves security, but also allows for greater flexibility in web development, since the source code is not visible to the end user.

  • Ease of learning: PHP is known to be one of the most accessible programming languages for beginners. Its syntax is simple and its learning curve is gentle, making it an excellent choice for those new to web development.

  • Large community and resources: PHP has a large community of developers who actively contribute documentation, tutorials, discussion forums and tools. This makes it easy to find solutions to common problems and learn new techniques and best practices.

  • Compatibility and versatility: PHP is compatible with most web servers and operating systems, allowing it to be integrated into different development environments. In addition, it can work with a wide variety of databases, such as MySQL, PostgreSQL and SQLite.

This language is a robust and flexible choice for web development, with an accessible syntax, a large support community and a wealth of available resources. Its ability to integrate directly into HTML and its server-side execution make it a powerful tool for creating dynamic and secure web applications.


Ruby is a fully object-oriented programming language. This means that any data or code can have properties and actions assigned to it, which makes it very flexible and allows users to freely modify it.

Popular frameworks:

The main Ruby framework for web development is Ruby on Rails, also known simply as Rails. Rails is based on the principle of Don't Repeat Yourself and follows the Model-View-Controller (MVC) design pattern. This facilitates the development and maintenance of web applications by separating the data, business logic and user interface.

Other popular frameworks include Sinatra and Hanami which offer lighter and more modular alternatives to Rails, better suited to smaller or more specific projects.

Advantages of Ruby in web development:

  • Great community: Ruby has an active and supportive community of developers who contribute libraries, tools and resources.

  • Elegant syntax: Ruby's clear and readable syntax makes development more intuitive and less error-prone.

  • Productivity: Thanks to its productivity-focused design, Ruby makes it possible to build web applications quickly and efficiently.

In summary, the use of Ruby in web development offers an elegant syntax, a large support community and a variety of frameworks that facilitate the creation of fast, efficient and maintainable web applications.


Java is a versatile and widely used programming language that is suited to both desktop and web development. Although it is not as web-integrated as other languages, it is still a popular choice for more complex web applications and backend development.

Popular frameworks:

Although Java is less common in web development than some other languages, it has some powerful and widely used frameworks:

  • Spring Framework: One of the most popular frameworks for Java web application development. Spring facilitates the development of robust and scalable enterprise applications, providing a wide range of functionality, from transaction management to security.

  • JavaServer Faces (JSF): A framework of user interface components for building Java web applications. JSF simplifies the development of interactive and dynamic user interfaces through the use of reusable components.

Advantages of Java in web development:

  • Robustness and scalability: Java is known for its robustness and scalability, making it ideal for enterprise web applications that require high performance and scalability.

  • Large community and resources: Java has a large community of developers and a wide variety of resources available, including libraries, tools and tutorials, which facilitate web development.

  • Portability: The Java platform is highly portable, which means that Java web applications can run on a wide variety of platforms and operating systems without modification.

Java is a solid choice for web development, especially for enterprise applications that require robustness and scalability. With frameworks such as Spring and JSF, developers can build powerful and scalable web applications in Java.


In the vast world of web development, the choice of the ideal programming language depends on the specific needs of each project. HTML and CSS are essential for structure and basic design, while JavaScript adds interactivity and dynamism. Python and its frameworks such as Django and Flask are perfect for those looking for clear syntax and fast productivity. PHP remains a solid choice for its ease of integration and broad support community. Ruby with Rails offers elegance and speed in development, and Java excels in enterprise applications that require robustness and scalability. Each language and framework has its own advantages and features, and the right choice can make all the difference in creating a successful and efficient website.